“This is no time for ease and comfort. It is the time to dare and endure.” – Winston Churchill

May 16, 2013 § 1 Comment

Tomorrow is our last day of classes and we will be closing out the year with an in-house midterm on the urogenital system. This midterm is “in-house” in that it is our professor will organize and administer the exam, which will be written rather than oral, and then we will grade each others exams. This is the only midterm that won’t count towards our grade, but the result will be listed on our files (which they will have in front of them during our semi-final examination). Our two previous midterms this semester in anatomy (the first on the heart and the second on the gastrointestinal and respiratory systems) were more “serious”. For those midterms, we were examined by one or more professors from other classes (orally and in front of our entire group). Let’s just say that they were a great deal more nerve-wracking.

My only class today is chemotaxis, which is in the evening. There is also a last biochemistry lecture, but I won’t be attending it because we have some people coming to look at the apartment. We got a call earlier this week asking if we were planning on staying here longer than our lease. We’ve been talking about moving for a while now. We absolutely love our apartment, but its just a little too off the beaten track. I would love to find a place around the Basilica. It is such an amazing location and the trip to and from school would be less hectic.

Other than that, today will be full of cramming for the urogenital midterm. With all our other exams, biochemistry midterm, Hungarian midterms, biochemistry lab midterm, etc, I’ve fallen a bit behind in the urogenital system. I’m really hoping that I can make some headway today.

My first semi-final during the exam period is anatomy on the 28th. This semester has covered internal organs and the exam will include anatomy, histology (anatomy at the microscopic level) and embryology (development). Here is our topic list:


  • The main steps, two basic typesand regualtion of meiotic cell division. Crossing over.
  • Place and time of meiotic divisions in the human body. The reasons of having two different gametes, the comparisons of the male and female gametes, developmental relevances. Composition of a sperm.


  • Shape, external features of heart
  • Chambers of heart
  • Endocardium, ostia, valves of heart
  • Skeleton of heart, anuli fibrosi
  • Structure of heart wall
  • Cardiac muscle, myocardium
  • Impulse generating and conducting system of heart
  • Pericardium
  • Position and surface projections of heart
  • Percussion and auscultation (area of cardiac dullness, heart sounds)
  • Radiology of heart
  • Development of heart tube
  • Development of atria (septum primum and secundum, foramen ovale)
  • Development of ventricles (interventricular septum)
  • Pulmonary circulation
  • Ascending aorta, arch of aorta and its branches
  • Common and external carotid artery and their branches
  • Maxillary artery and its branches
  • Subclavian artery and its branches
  • Thoracic aorta and its branches
  • Abdominal aorta and its branches
  • Coeliac trunk and its branches
  • Superior mesenteric artery and its branches
  • Inferior mesenteric artery and its branches
  • External and internal iliac artery and its branches
  • Internal pudendal artery and its branches
  • Superior vena cava and its tributaries
  • Inferior vena cava and its tributaries
  • Azygos and hemiazygos veins and their tributaries
  • Portal vein and its tributaries, portocaval anastomoses
  • Veins of face and neck
  • Cutaneous veins and lymphatic vessels of trunk
  • Microscopic structure of arterial and arteriolar wall
  • Microscopic structure of capillary wall
  • Development of aorta and branchial (pharyngeal) arch arteries
  • Development of great veins (caval, portal, azygos)
  • Fetal circulation
  • Microscopic structure of the wall of venules, veins and lymphatic vessels


  • Tonsils (anatomy, histology, embryology)
  • Spleen (anatomy, histology, embryology)
  • Thymus (anatomy, histology, embryology)
  • Lymphatic vessels and nodes of head and neck
  • Lymphatic vessels and nodes of mediastinum
  • Lymphatic vessels and nodes of retroperitoneal space
  • Lymphatic vessels and nodes of pelvis
  • Thoracic duct and right lymphatic duct
  • Microscopic structure of lymphatic system (reticular cells, lymphocytes, plasma cells,antibodies, lymphatic follicles) Microscopic anatomy of lymph nodes


  • Oral cavity (divisions, boundaries)
  • Floor of mouth, sulcus lateralis linguae
  • Types and morphology of teeth
  • Orientation and supporting structures of teeth
  • Dental arch and dental formula, blood and nerve supply of teeth
  • Microscopic anatomy of oral tissues (enamel, dentin, cementum, periodontal ligament,alveolar bone, gum)
  • Development of teeth
  • Microscopic anatomy of dental development
  • Tongue (parts, vessels, innervation)
  • Microscopic anatomy and development of the tongue
  • Salivary glands (anatomy, histology, embryology)
  • Isthmus of fauces
  • Palate, palatine muscles
  • Development of face, hare lip
  • Development of nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses
  • Development of palate, cleft palate
  • Pharynx, (shape, position, parts, muscles)
  • Topography of the pharynx, para and retropharyngeal spaces
  • Structure and development of branchial (pharyngeal) arches
  • Derivatives of branchial (pharyngeal) arches
  • Development and derivatives of branchial (pharyngeal) pouches
  • Branchial (pharyngeal) grooves
  • Oesophagus (anatomy, histology, embryology)
  • Derivatives of foregut (pharynx, oesophagus, stomach, duodenum)
  • Stomach (shape, position, parts)
  • Peritoneal relations of stomach
  • Blood supply and innervation of stomach
  • Microscopic anatomy of stomach
  • Duodenum (shape, position, divisions, vessels)
  • Jejunum‐ileum (shape, position, vessels)
  • Microscopic anatomy of small intestine
  • Fine structure of the intestinal vili
  • Large intestine (shape, position, divisions, vessels)
  • Microscopic anatomy of large intestine
  • Structure of enteroendocrine cells
  • Microscopic anatomy of vermiform appendix
  • Rectum, anal canal (shape, position, vessels)
  • Microscopic anatomy of rectum and anal canal
  • Liver (shape, position; development)
  • Gall bladder and biliary passages (anatomy, histology, embryology)
  • Liver (peritoneal relations, vessels)
  • Microscopic anatomy of the liver
  • Circulation of liver, liver sinusoids
  • Microscopic anatomy of gall bladder and extrahepatic biliary tracts
  • Pancreas (shape, position, vessels)
  • Microscopic anatomy and development of the pancreas
  • Peritoneum omenta, mesentery, omental bursa
  • Rotation and derivatives of midgut, physiological umbilical hernia
  • Development of hindgut
  • Development and separation of body cavities
  • Development of the peritoneum
  • Development of diaphragm


  • Nose, nasal cavity (boundaries, nasal meatus, vessels)
  • Paranasal sinuses (connections, vessels)
  • Larynx (shape, position, vessels, nerves)
  • Skeleton and joints of larynx
  • Laryngeal ligaments (fibroelastic membranes, mucous membrane)
  • Muscles of larynx, innervation
  • Microscopic structure and development of the larynx
  • Trachea and bronchial tree (anatomy, histology and development)
  • Lung (shape, parts, surfaces, hilum)
  • Lung (position, vessels, nerves)
  • Pleura, pleural cavity
  • Surface projection of pleura and lung
  • Microscopic structure and development of the lung


  • Kidney (shape, position, hilum, sinus, capsules)
  • Kidney (section, vascular architecture)
  • Microscopic anatomy of kidney
  • Microscopic anatomy of juxtaglomerular apparatus
  • Vascular architecture of kidney
  • Development of kidney and ureter (pronephros, mesonephros, metanephros)
  • Renal pelvis and calyces
  • Ureter (anatomy, histology and embryology)
  • Urinary bladder (shape, position, muscles, vessels)
  • Microscopic anatomy and development of the urinary passages
  • Differentiation of the urogenital sinus
  • Female urethra (anatomy, histology and embryology)
  • Testis (shape, position, vessels)
  • Microscopic anatomy of testis, spermatogenesis
  • Development of testis
  • Epididymis, vas (ductus) deferens, spermatic cord (anatomy, histology and embryology)
  • Scrotum, coats of testis
  • Seminal vesicle (anatomy, histology and embryology)
  • Prostate (anatomy, histology and embryology)
  • Development of male genital ducts and glands
  • Male urethra, bulbourethral gland (anatomy, histology and embryology)
  • Penis (shape, position, mechanism of erection, vessels, nerves)
  • Microscopic anatomy of penis and male urethra
  • Pelvic floor, male perineum
  • Hernia canals (inguinal and femoral)
  • Development of the male external genital organs
  • Ovary (shape, position, vessels)
  • Microscopic anatomy of ovary, oogenesis
  • Microscopic anatomy of corpus luteum
  • Development of ovary
  • Uterine tube (shape, position, vessels; histology, embryology)
  • Uterus (shape, parts, wall, cavity)
  • Uterus (position, supporting structures, vessels)
  • Broad ligament (lig. latum) and its components
  • Microscopic anatomy of uterus, menstrual cycle
  • Vagina, female perineum
  • External female genital organs (mons pubis, labia, vestibule of vagina, greater vestibular gland, vessels)
  • Development of female genital tracts
  • Microscopic anatomy of vagina and external genitalia
  • Development of the female external genital organs

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§ One Response to “This is no time for ease and comfort. It is the time to dare and endure.” – Winston Churchill

  • I am changing address too. I am moving to Cuenca Ecuador tomorrow – very happy about the move. It was about time. An Italian song just floated across my mind.

    Sei sulla buona strada
    Mi dico pensando che
    La nebbia si dirada
    E tutto e’ piu chiaro in me.

    It is a strange song about a “being” that falls to Earth to protect his or her Great Dream.
    What was even more amazing is that it won second place at one of the San Remo Italian music festivals even though the words are quasi-mystical.

    If you are unable to translate it I’ll do it for you.
    Stay well my dear Bianca and keep alert. Keep the faith and do not despair. Amazing things are about to happen on this Earth. As a Brazilian poet says:

    The world is about to change its face,
    death will reveal the true meaning of things.
    Everything will become transparent:
    volcanoes of hatred, explosions of love,
    other faces will appear on earth,
    the wind that comes from eternity will suspend its steps,,

    Murillo Mendez, Mapas

    Best of luck as you finish the year. Will that make you a 1/4 MD.



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